So the result (in addition to the client with its features) depends on:
- consultant skills;
- used "tools" - methods of work.
It is hardly worth guessing about the skill of a psychologist, not being a specialist. Like listening to the opinions of friends - not psychologists. As well as to judge the effectiveness of psychological assistance by whether the appeal to a psychologist helped your acquaintances. They could not help, what does this have to do with you?
There is no "psychology at all." There is a specific psychologist to whom you want to turn. See reviews about it. Of course, it is not so simple here - you do not know the authors of the reviews, how they treated psychotherapy, how they worked. And in general, are these customers real? If there are a lot of reviews, different and reasoned, if this psychologist is known, then something else can be judged. And still buy a "cat in a bag"!
It makes sense to look at education and especially professional activities. If this specialist worked in serious institutions, and most importantly, he was engaged in practical psychotherapy, this is a big plus!
Just do not confuse psychotherapy as a process and psychotherapy as a separate profession. All methods of psychological assistance correctly called psychotherapy. Engaged in her ... psychologist. Conducts psychotherapy. The psychotherapist is only a specialist with a medical education.
Not bad, if the web has his articles and other works. At least, there is an opportunity to get acquainted with his views, preferences, level of understanding. But! This does not mean what he practices! So it remains to go and try. With all his efforts.
Usually on the sites of psychologists / psychotherapists used directions and methods of psychotherapy. Someone keeps to one system, but more often they use a complex of methods. It gives the psychologist more flexibility in work, but rather a potential client. Not during work (there is not before), but at the stage of choosing a specialist.
In fact, the list of methods does not mean that they will work with you precisely with their use and exactly as you read in popular literature. Textbooks are not an axiom. Most psychotherapy techniques adapt to the situation. So the list of techniques used by a psychologist is only an approximate guide when choosing "one's own" specialist.
Briefly "run over" some of the popular systems of psychotherapy, often used in counseling.
Psychoanalytic direction: psychoanalysis itself and its “light versions”, such as psychodynamic therapy.
Cons psychoanalysis: work for a long time (perhaps years; 3-5 times / week); the result is ... foggy. But if it works, it will more than pay for all the work. After all, psychoanalysis, by and large, is aimed at a deep internal restructuring of the individual.
Simplified systems are not so radical. And rather focused on specific, private problems; designed for months of work (and not years, as a "standard" psychoanalysis). These methods are less deep, solve much smaller tasks - but much faster and more efficiently.
But any psychoanalytic therapy is difficult, requires a certain mental structure and is not suitable for everyone.
Very popular gestalt therapy. This, frankly, figs knows that ... Sometimes the gestaltists themselves find it difficult to accurately define. In any case, you have to work, performing techniques and exercises. The most different: from the "physical" to using the imagination.
In fact, the goal of all gestalt exercises is to increase awareness, to learn to be "here and now." "Gestalt" means integrity. The main goal of Gestalt practice is to learn to live fully in the present moment, getting rid of internal duality / contradiction. Completion is the non-abandonment in the past of affairs and situations that “pull” emotional “tails” into the present. Emotions, feelings are directed not to the past or the future, but to the present moment, to the very process of life!
How exactly the work will take place depends largely on you, your peculiarities. Gestalt therapy provides a wide selection of "tools", and I repeat: you will have to work. It definitely won't be boring!
Is it effective? Quite how much it all depends on the method itself. The rest is your joint work with a psychologist.
Client-centered therapy. The main method is active listening. The sessions maintain an atmosphere of positive attention, empathy, and acceptance of the client as he is. This "helps" him to achieve greater openness to experience, understanding of his own feelings, awareness, etc.
The client is brought to the realization of his I-concept, the degree of its divergence from reality and how others perceive it. That is, the emotional atmosphere maintained by the psychologist allows you to study yourself.
How effective? It is very dependent on the art of the psychologist, his ability to gradually help you to open up, to allow you to behave more and more consciously. But this type of therapy is no longer aimed at working out a specific problem, but at profound, qualitative personality changes in general.
Body-oriented therapy - combines a number of systems that “fit” to the psyche through work with the body. What for? First of all, it is effective.
Soul and body are constantly interacting aspects of a single organism. Emotional problems are always reflected in one or another imbalance of the body structure, in muscle tensions. We instantly react to any emotional change with our body. And any disturbances, discomfort in the emotional sphere are “imprinted” in the muscles.
In the "tele" go from the opposite - through the body to the emotional sphere. It is easier, faster and clearer for the client. At the same time, we restore the natural ability to move harmoniously and rationally, often getting rid of pain in muscles and joints.
The structure of the body and how a person moves reflects the personality and character traits. The dependence here is direct. By adjusting one, we almost inevitably act on the other. Exercises and techniques are many and very different. They are selected depending on your characteristics, preferences of the psychologist and the direction he adheres to. Teleska is a series of schools with their own concepts and approach to practice. Plus the fact that you can find the direction that is most appropriate for you. Minus - you have to sort out this variety. At the same time, get an idea of body-oriented methods in general.
Cognitive-behavioral (also rational emotive) therapy. Several close schools whose names reflect the approach: behavior change through a change in thinking. Emotions are determined by perception and attitude to the factors causing emotions. Learn to perceive the environment accurately and without distortion, to think rationally - unwanted emotional reactions will go away by themselves.
And inevitably change, becoming more rational behavior.
These are probably the main systems used in counseling. No, there is still a lot of everything and everyone. Science goes ahead and yesterday's exotic becomes one of many methods. We are also interested in the fact that, let's say, simpler and more traditional.
By the way, they’ll probably tell me that I forgot hypnosis. Did not forget. And I remember about NLP. But here are my personal preferences: I do not recognize methods that are not related to awareness.
And I will say a bad thing, you can be offended - but it is. There is still no normal psychological culture in our society. Nevertheless, in order to attend psychologists, it is highly desirable to understand how all this works. While going to a psychologist as a doctor, on the principle of "cure" and "help" - there will be no sense. At one time, I found another comparison for myself: we’d rather go to the teacher, the teacher. He will help - but we will have to learn ourselves.